c-Cbl mediates ubiquitination, degradation, and down-regulation of human protease-activated receptor 2.

Departments of Surgery and Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0660, USA.
Mechanisms that arrest G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling prevent uncontrolled stimulation that could cause disease. Although uncoupling from heterotrimeric G-proteins, which transiently arrests signaling, is well described, little is known about the mechanisms that permanently arrest signaling. Here we reported on the mechanisms that terminate signaling by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), which mediated the proinflammatory and nociceptive actions of proteases. Given its irreversible mechanism of proteolytic activation, PAR(2) is a model to study the permanent arrest of GPCR signaling. By immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, we observed that activated PAR(2) was mono-ubiquitinated. Immunofluorescence indicated that activated PAR(2) translocated from the plasma membrane to early endosomes and lysosomes where it was degraded, as determined by immunoblotting. Mutant PAR(2) lacking intracellular lysine residues (PAR(2)Delta14K/R) was expressed at the plasma membrane and signaled normally but was not ubiquitinated. Activated PAR(2) Delta14K/R internalized but was retained in early endosomes and avoided lysosomal degradation. Activation of wild type PAR(2) stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase c-Cbl and promoted its interaction with PAR(2) at the plasma membrane and in endosomes in an Src-dependent manner. Dominant negative c-Cbl lacking the ring finger domain inhibited PAR(2) ubiquitination and induced retention in early endosomes, thereby impeding lysosomal degradation. Although wild type PAR(2) was degraded, and recovery of agonist responses required synthesis of new receptors, lysine mutation and dominant negative c-Cbl impeded receptor ubiquitination and degradation and allowed PAR(2) to recycle and continue to signal. Thus, c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of PAR(2) to irrevocably terminate signaling by this and perhaps other GPCRs.
Mesh Terms:
Down-Regulation, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Humans, Lysosomes, Protein Structure, Secondary, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl, Receptor, PAR-2, Signal Transduction, Ubiquitin, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
J. Biol. Chem. Apr. 22, 2005; 280(16);16076-87 [PUBMED:15708858]
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