Moclobemide. An update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use.

Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.
Unlike older monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which irreversibly and nonselectively bind monoamine oxidase (MAO), moclobemide is a reversible and selective inhibitor of the MAO-A isozyme. Moclobemide only weakly potentiates the pressor response induced by tyramine or other indirectly acting sympathomimetics; therefore, there is no need to avoid dietary tyramine or over-the-counter decongestants with moclobemide as there is with older MAO inhibitors. Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the efficacy of moclobemide in the treatment of depressive disorders. Moclobemide has been shown to have similar efficacy to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonselective, irreversible MAO inhibitors. Long term follow-up studies of 6 to 12 months' duration have demonstrated that the antidepressant efficacy of moclobemide is maintained. Moclobemide, given alone or in combination with another antidepressant, has shown some efficacy in patients with refractory depression; however, comparative trials are required to confirm these findings. Data are also available to show clinical efficacy of moclobemide in the management of social phobia. Comparative studies have established that moclobemide is better tolerated at therapeutic dosages and has less toxicity in overdose than TCAs and nonselective, irreversible MAO inhibitors. Moclobemide lacks the anticholinergic, sedative and cardiovascular effects associated with many of the older antidepressants. Compared with SSRIs, moclobemide has a similar overall tolerability, although it tends to cause fewer gastrointestinal effects than the SSRIs and has not been reported to interfere with sexual function. In summary, recent data which confirm and extend its comparative therapeutic efficacy and low potential for adverse effects have established moclobemide as an effective treatment in depressive disorders. The drug is also effective in patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia. Its lack of adverse anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor effects makes moclobemide a particularly useful option in the elderly or patients with cardiac disease.
Mesh Terms:
Age Factors, Animals, Antidepressive Agents, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, Benzamides, Clinical Trials as Topic, Depressive Disorder, Drug Interactions, Humans, Moclobemide, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Phobic Disorders, Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Drugs Sep. 01, 1996; 52(3);450-74 [PUBMED:8875133]
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