Quantitative assays of Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase activity and other ubiquitin-utilizing enzymes for inhibitor discovery.

Mdm2 is a negative regulator of p53 activity and functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Inhibition of mdm2 E3 ligase activity will block ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of p53, resulting in the stabilization of p53 protein that could lead to the restoration of its tumor-suppressor activity. This ...
chapter describes quantitative biochemical assays for mdm2 E3 activity that can be applied to other ubiquitin-utilizing enzyme systems. Our unique assay format relies on the generation of labeled Ub-E2 conjugate that functions as a substrate for the E3 ligase enzyme. Reducing the E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin cascade to a single enzyme (E3) and bisubstrate (Ub-E2 and target protein) reaction makes it possible to carry out detailed biochemical characterization of the reaction mechanism, high-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of specific E3 ligases, and detailed characterization of the mode of inhibitor interactions with the target enzyme. In addition, preforming the Ub-E2 conjugate as an enzyme substrate for inhibitor screening minimizes interference from thiol-modifying compounds and from nucleotide analogs and other ATP-interfering compounds that might affect the E1 reaction. Using this type of format, we were able to identify small molecule inhibitors of mdm2 E3 ligase activity that are selective against E1 and other E3 ligases, including mdm2's own autoubiquitination activity. Detailed protocols on the labeling of Ub, the generation of Ub-E2, and the use of Ub-E2 in the E3 ligase reaction for inhibitor discovery and characterization are provided.
Mesh Terms:
Drug Design, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Enzyme Inhibitors, Humans, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2, Ubiquitin
Meth. Enzymol.
Date: Dec. 13, 2005
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