A 5'-distal enhanceosome in the PDGF-A gene is activated in choriocarcinoma cells via ligand-independent binding of vitamin D receptor and constitutive jun kinase signaling.

Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor A-chain (PDGF-A) is clearly linked to autocrine and paracrine stimulation of malignant growth in many human cancers. We have shown previously that PDGF-A overexpression in choriocarcinoma, hepatoma and lung carcinoma cell lines is driven by the activity of a 66 bp enhancer element (ACE66) located ...
approximately 7 kb upstream of the PDGF-A transcription start site. In this study, the ACE66 element is shown to be activated in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells through synergistic interactions between consensus DNA motifs for binding of vitamin D receptor, AP1 and ELK1. Binding of the vitamin D/retinoid-X receptor (VDR/RXRalpha) heterodimer to the ACE66 element was reconstituted in vitro with recombinant VDR/RXRalpha and with JEG-3 nuclear extract, and was verified in living JEG-3 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Transcriptional activity of the ACE66 element, as well as occupancy of the element by VDR/RXRalpha, was shown to be independent of stimulation with the hormonal VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. The jun kinase pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was shown to activate the ACE66 enhancer, most likely through activation of factors binding to the AP1 element. These results identify a novel mechanism of transcriptional enhancement involving ligand-independent activity of the VDR/RXR heterodimer and MAPK signaling pathways that appears to play an important role in the overexpression of PDGF in many different settings of human malignancy.
Mesh Terms:
5' Flanking Region, Base Sequence, Choriocarcinoma, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Humans, JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Ligands, MAP Kinase Signaling System, Models, Biological, Molecular Sequence Data, Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Protein Binding, Receptors, Calcitriol, Recombinant Proteins, Signal Transduction, Tumor Cells, Cultured
Date: Apr. 14, 2005
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