Disulfide trapping of protein complexes on the yeast surface.

Protein complexes are common in nature and play important roles in biology, but studying the quaternary structure formation in vitro is challenging since it involves lengthy and expensive biochemical steps. There are frequent technical difficulties as well with the sensitivity and resolution of the assays. In this regard, a technique ...
that can analyze protein-protein interactions in high throughput would be a useful experimental tool. Here, we introduce a combination of yeast display and disulfide trapping that we refer to as stabilization of transient and unstable complexes by engineered disulfide (STUCKED) that can be used to detect the formation of a broad spectrum of protein complexes on the yeast surface using fluorescence labeling. The technique uses an engineered intersubunit disulfide to covalently crosslink the subunits of a complex, so that the disulfide-trapped complex can be displayed on the yeast surface for detection and analysis. Transient protein complexes are difficult to display on the yeast surface, since they may dissociate before they can be detected due to a long induction period in yeast. To this end, we show that three different quaternary structures with the subunit dissociation constant K(d) approximately 0.5-20 microM, the antibody variable domain (Fv), the IL-8 dimer, and the p53-MDM2 complex, cannot be displayed on the yeast surface as a noncovalent complex. However, when we introduce an interchain disulfide between the subunits, all three systems are efficiently displayed on the yeast surface, showing that disulfide trapping can help display protein complexes that cannot be displayed otherwise. We also demonstrate that a disulfide forms only between the subunits that interact specifically, the displayed complexes exhibit functional characteristics that are expected of wt proteins, the mutations that decrease the affinity of subunit interaction also reduce the display efficiency, and most of the disulfide stabilized complexes are formed within the secretory pathway during export to the surface. Disulfide crosslinking is therefore a convenient way to study weak protein association in the context of yeast display.
Mesh Terms:
Disulfides, Kinetics, Membrane Proteins, Models, Molecular, Protein Multimerization, Protein Stability, Protein Structure, Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
Date: May. 01, 2010
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