TIN2 is a tankyrase 1 PARP modulator in the TRF1 telomere length control complex.

The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Telomere length in humans is partly controlled by a feedback mechanism in which telomere elongation by telomerase is limited by the accumulation of the TRF1 complex at chromosome ends. TRF1 itself can be inhibited by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity of its interacting partner tankyrase 1, which abolishes its DNA binding activity in vitro and removes the TRF1 complex from telomeres in vivo. Here we report that the inhibition of TRF1 by tankyrase is in turn controlled by a second TRF1-interacting factor, TIN2 (ref. 6). Partial knockdown of TIN2 by small hairpin RNA in a telomerase-positive cell line resulted in telomere elongation, which is typical of reduced TRF1 function. Transient inhibition of TIN2 with small interfering RNA led to diminished telomeric TRF1 signals. This effect could be reversed with the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide and did not occur in cells overexpressing a PARP-dead mutant of tankyrase 1. TIN2 formed a ternary complex with TRF1 and tankyrase 1 and stabilized their interaction, an effect also observed with the PARP-dead mutant of tankyrase 1. In vitro, TIN2 protected TRF1 from poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by tankyrase 1 without affecting tankyrase 1 automodification. These data identify TIN2 as a PARP modulator in the TRF1 complex and can explain how TIN2 contributes to the regulation of telomere length.
Mesh Terms:
HeLa Cells, Humans, Macromolecular Substances, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases, RNA, Small Interfering, Recombinant Proteins, Tankyrases, Telomere, Telomere-Binding Proteins, Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1, Transfection
Nat. Genet. Jun. 01, 2004; 36(6);618-23 [PUBMED:15133513]
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