Calcofluor antifungal action depends on chitin and a functional high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway: evidence for a physiological role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG pathway under noninducing conditions.

We have isolated several Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants resistant to calcofluor that contain mutations in the PBS2 or HOG1 genes, which encode the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAP kinases, respectively, of the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway. We report that blockage of either of the two activation branches of the ...
pathway, namely, SHO1 and SLN1, leads to partial resistance to calcofluor, while simultaneous disruption significantly increases resistance. However, chitin biosynthesis is independent of the HOG pathway. Calcofluor treatment also induces an increase in salt tolerance and glycerol accumulation, although no activation of the HOG pathway is detected. Our results indicate that the antifungal effect of calcofluor depends on its binding to cell wall chitin but also on the presence of a functional HOG pathway. Characterization of one of the mutants isolated, pbs2-14, revealed that resistance to calcofluor and HOG-dependent osmoadaptation are two different physiological processes. Sensitivity to calcofluor depends on the constitutive functionality of the HOG pathway; when this is altered, the cells become calcofluor resistant but also show very low levels of basal salt tolerance. Characterization of some multicopy suppressors of the calcofluor resistance phenotype indicated that constitutive HOG functionality participates in the maintenance of cell wall architecture, a conclusion supported by the antagonism observed between the protein kinase and HOG signal transduction pathways.
Mesh Terms:
Antifungal Agents, Benzenesulfonates, Chitin, Drug Resistance, Microbial, Glycerol, MAP Kinase Signaling System, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Mutagenesis, Osmolar Concentration, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
J. Bacteriol.
Date: May. 01, 2000
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