A 46-amino acid segment in phosphodiesterase-5 GAF-B domain provides for high vardenafil potency over sildenafil and tadalafil and is involved in phosphodiesterase-5 dimerization.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, 702 Light Hall, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, USA.
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) contains a catalytic domain (C domain) that hydrolyzes cGMP and a regulatory domain (R domain) that contains two mammalian cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase, Anabaena adenylyl cyclases, Escherichia coli FhlAs (GAFs) (A and B) and a phosphorylation site for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases (cNPKs). Binding of cGMP to GAF-A increases cNPK phosphorylation of PDE5 and improves catalytic site affinity for cGMP or inhibitors. GAF-B contributes to dimerization of PDE5, inhibition of cGMP binding to GAF-A, and sequestration of the phosphorylation site. To probe potential PDE5 R domain effects on catalytic site affinity for certain inhibitors, four N-terminal truncation mutants were generated: PDE5Delta1-321 contained GAF-B domain, C domain, and the sequence between GAF-A and -B; PDE5Delta1-419 contained GAF-B and C domain; PDE5Delta1-465 contained the C domain and the C-terminal portion of GAF-B; and PDE5Delta1-534 contained only C domain. Truncated proteins with a complete GAF-B were dimers, but those lacking the N-terminal 46 amino acids of GAF-B were monomers, indicating that these residues are vital for GAF-B-mediated PDE5 dimerization. K(m) values of the mutants for cGMP were similar to that of full-length PDE5. All PDE5 constructs had similar affinities for 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, sildenafil, tadalafil, and UK-122764, but mutants containing a complete GAF-B had 7- to 18-fold higher affinity for vardenafil-based compounds compared with those lacking a complete GAF-B. This indicated that the N-terminal 46 amino acids in GAF-B are required for high vardenafil potency. This is the first evidence that PDE5 R domain, and GAF-B in particular, influences affinity and selectivity of the catalytic site for certain classes of inhibitors.
Mesh Terms:
3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases, Amino Acid Sequence, Binding Sites, Carbolines, Centrifugation, Density Gradient, Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5, Dimerization, Holoenzymes, Humans, Imidazoles, Inhibitory Concentration 50, Kinetics, Molecular Weight, Mutant Proteins, Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Piperazines, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Purines, Structure-Activity Relationship, Sulfones, Triazines, Tritium
Mol. Pharmacol. Nov. 01, 2006; 70(5);1822-31 [PUBMED:16926278]
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