Calmodulin-binding sites on adenylyl cyclase type VIII.

Neuroscience Program and Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA.
Ca2+ stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type VIII (ACVIII) occurs through loosely bound calmodulin. However, where calmodulin binds in ACVIII and how the binding activates this cyclase have not yet been investigated. We have located two putative calmodulin-binding sites in ACVIII. One site is located at the N terminus as revealed by overlay assays; the other is located at the C terminus, as indicated by mutagenesis studies. Both of these calmodulin-binding sites were confirmed by synthetic peptide studies. The N-terminal site has the typical motif of a Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding domain, which is defined by a characteristic pattern of hydrophobic amino acids, basic and aromatic amino acids, and a tendency to form amphipathic alpha-helix structures. Functional, mutagenesis studies suggest that this binding makes a minor contribution to the Ca2+ stimulation of ACVIII activity, although it might be involved in calmodulin trapping by ACVIII. The primary structure of the C-terminal site resembles another calmodulin-binding motif, the so-called IQ motif, which is commonly Ca2+-independent. Mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that this latter site is a calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding site, which is largely responsible for the Ca2+ stimulation of ACVIII. Removal of this latter calmodulin-binding region from ACVIII results in a hyperactivated enzyme state and a loss of Ca2+ sensitivity. Thus, Ca2+/calmodulin regulation of ACVIII may be through a disinhibitory mechanism, as is the case for a number of other targets of Ca2+/calmodulin.
Mesh Terms:
Adenylate Cyclase, Amino Acid Sequence, Binding Sites, Blotting, Western, Calcium, Calmodulin, Cell Line, Cyclic AMP, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Protein Structure, Secondary
J. Biol. Chem. Mar. 19, 1999; 274(12);8012-21 [PUBMED:10075700]
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