Multiple roles of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 in plant cells include spatially regulated recruitment of coatomer and elements of the Golgi matrix.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2, Canada.
Recent evidence indicates that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) carries out multiple roles in plant cells that may be independent from the established effector complex COPI. To investigate potential COPI-independent functions, we have followed the dynamics of ARF1 and a novel putative effector, the plant golgin GRIP-related ARF-binding domain-containing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protein 1 (GDAP1) in living plant cells. We present data that ascribe a new role to ARF1 in plant cell membrane traffic by showing that the GTPase functions to recruit GDAP1 to membranes. In addition, although ARF1 appears to be central to the recruitment of both COPI components and the golgin, we have established a different subcellular distribution of these ARF1 effectors. Live cell imaging demonstrates that GDAP1 and COPI are distributed on Golgi membranes. However, GDAP1 is also found on ARF1-labeled structures that lack coatomer, suggesting that the membrane environment, rather than ARF1 alone, influences the differential recruitment of ARF1 effectors. In support of this hypothesis, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses demonstrated that GDAP1 and COPI have different kinetics on membranes during the cycle of activation and inactivation of ARF1. Therefore, our data support a model where modulation of the cellular functions of ARF1 in plant cells encompasses not only the intrinsic activities of the effectors, but also differential recruitment onto membranes that is spatially regulated.
Mesh Terms:
ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1, Chromatography, Affinity, Golgi Apparatus, Kinetics
Plant Physiol. Apr. 01, 2007; 143(4);1615-27 [PUBMED:17307898]
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